A new review drafted by three Canadian psychiatrists aims to help primary care physicians diagnose and manage depression in adolescents.
Depression is common among Canadian adolescents and often goes unnoticed. Many family physicians report feeling unprepared to identify and manage depression in these patients.
“Depression is an increasingly common but treatable condition among adolescents,” the authors wrote. “Primary care physicians and pediatricians are well positioned to support the assessment and first-line management of depression in this group, helping patients to regain their health and function.”
The article was published May 29 in CMAJ.
More than 40% of cases of depression begin during childhood. Onset at this life stage is associated with worse severity of depression in adulthood and worse social, occupational, and physical health outcomes.
Depression is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Family history of depression is associated with a three- to fivefold increased risk of depression among older children. Genetic loci are known to be associated with depression, but exposure to parental depression, adverse childhood experiences, and family conflict are also linked to greater risk. Bullying and stigma are associated with greater risk among lesbian, gay, pharmacy technician vocational programs bisexual, and transgender youth.
Compared with adults, adolescents with depression are more likely to be irritable and to have a labile mood, rather than a low mood. Social withdrawal is also more common among adolescents than among adults. Unusual features, such as hypersomnia and increased appetite, may also be present. Anxiety, somatic symptoms, psychomotor agitation, and hallucinations are more common in adolescents than in younger persons with depression. It is vital to assess risk of suicidality and self-injury as well as support systems, and validated scales such as the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale can be useful.
There is no consensus as to whether universal screening for depression is beneficial among adolescents. “Screening in this age group may be a reasonable approach, however, when implemented together with adequate systems that ensure accurate diagnosis and appropriate follow-up,” wrote the authors.
Management of depression in adolescents should begin with psychoeducation and may include lifestyle modification, psychotherapy, and medication. “Importantly, a suicide risk assessment must be done to ensure appropriateness of an outpatient management plan and facilitate safety planning,” the authors write.
Lifestyle interventions may target physical activity, diet, and sleep, since unhealthy patterns in all three are associated with heightened symptoms of depression in this population. Regular moderate to vigorous physical activity, and perhaps physical activity of short duration, can improve mood in adolescents. Reduced consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks, processed foods, and meats, along with greater consumption of fruits and legumes, has been shown to reduce depressive symptoms in randomized, controlled trials with adults.
Among psychotherapeutic approaches, cognitive-behavioral therapy has shown the most evidence of efficacy among adolescents with depression, though it is less effective for those with more severe symptoms, poor coping skills, and nonsuicidal self-injury. Some evidence supports interpersonal therapy, which focuses on relationships and social functioning. The involvement of caregivers may improve the response, compared with psychotherapy that only includes the adolescent.
The authors recommend antidepressant medications in more severe cases or when psychotherapy is ineffective or impossible. Guidelines generally support trials with at least two selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors before switching to another drug class, since efficacy data for them are sparser, and other drugs have worse side effect profiles.
About 2% of adolescents with depression experience an increase in suicidal ideation and behavior after exposure to antidepressants, usually within the first weeks of initiation, so this potential risk should be discussed with patients and caregivers.
Clinicians Feel Unprepared
Commenting on the review for Medscape, Pierre-Paul Tellier, MD, an associate professor of family medicine at McGill University in Montreal, said that clinicians frequently report that they do not feel confident in their ability to manage and diagnose adolescent depression. “We did two systematic reviews to look at the continuing professional development of family physicians in adolescent health, and it turned out that there’s really a very large lack. When we looked at residents and the training that they were getting in adolescent medicine, it was very similar, so they felt unprepared to deal with issues around mental health.”
Medication can be effective, but it can be seen as “an easy way out,” Tellier added. “It’s not necessarily an ideal plan. What we need to do is to change the person’s way of thinking, the person’s way of responding to a variety of things which will occur throughout their lives. People will have other transition periods in their lives. It’s best if they learn a variety of techniques to deal with depression.”
These techniques include exercise, relaxation methods (which reduce anxiety), and wellness training. Through such techniques, patients “learn a healthier way of living with themselves and who they are, and then this is a lifelong way of learning,” said Tellier. “If I give you a pill, what I’m teaching is, yes, you can feel better. But you’re not dealing with the problem, you’re just dealing with the symptoms.”
He frequently refers his patients to YouTube videos that outline and explain various strategies. A favorite is a deep breathing exercise presented by Jeremy Howick.
The authors and Tellier have disclosed no relevant financial relationships
CMAJ. May 29, 2023. Full text
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